For more than 250 years, the samovar has
occupied an honoured place in Russian homes as the centrepiece
of the table, around which life revolved. It remains most stable
attribute of domestic coziness. Step by step a peculiar ritual
of tea-drinking emerged and was adopted in every Russian homes.
Drinking tea from the samovar was a way of life.
the 18-th century in the Urals and Tula samovar-kitchens were
invented, they were divided into three parts in two of them
the meals was cooked, in the third tea. Sbitennik and samovar-kitchen
were samovar prototypes.
There are different versions of the first samovars
manufacture, they were produced in the Urals, Moscow, Saint-Petersburg,
Tula, later in Vladimirskaja, Jaroslavskaja and Vjatskaja
provinces. The first samovar factory was founded in Tula by
Nasar Usitsin in 1778.
The town of gunsmiths became familiar to all
the world as the center of samovar manufacture due to rich
ore deposits, highly qualified masters who worked metals and
location of Tula in the vicinity of Moscow.
Samovar manufacture appeared to be very profitable.
Handicraftsmen quickly became manufacturers, workshops samovar
manufactures. In 1826 there were eight samovar factories,
in 1896 seventy.
Samovars were made from cupronic-kel, red and
green copper, pinchbeck, in some cases from silver. Sometimes
they were plated with gold, silver, but basic metal was always
brass. In the course of centuries samovar shapes changed.
By the end of the 19-th century their quantity reached 165.
It was almost impossible to mechanize samovars manufacture
completely. Tools were also unchanged. By hand assembly five-six
samovars per day were produced.
The highest peak of samovar manufacture in
Tula is related to the 80s of the 19-th century.
Samovar was not only the feature of home comfort,
the symbol of Russian hospitality, but also the sign of good
Among monuments of folk domestic art samovars
occupy specific place.
They may be considered not only as domestic
utensils, some of them are real works of applied arts. Each
true master wanted to astonish the customers be their creative
Strict design, durability in combination with
decorative qualities caused interest to samovars on the part
of the people all over the world.
Tula samovars were presented at the exhibitions
in Russia and abroad/
The manufacturers taking part at the exhibitions
were constantly awarded with medals, the reprints of them
were presented on the samovar walls.
Tula samovars were spread all over Russia.
At the fairs there were sold samovars of different shapes:
vase-shaped, pear-shaped, wine-glass-shaped and others.
Prices reduction in the process of manufacture
caused standardization of samovar shapes. The so-called cylindrical
samovars were widely spread.
In Tula coal samovars were produced, the water in them was
heated by charcoal, kerosene samovars and combined variants,
the water in which was heated by any type of fuel.
Prices were fixed in dependence of a shape,
material and dimension. Simple samovars were sold by poods.
Articles of complicated shapes (presents, made to order) were
sold by the piece.
During all the 19-th century portable samovars
were produced in Tula, as a rule, they were many-sided, cubic,
Production technology was greatly improved
for two hundred years. There are used presses, conveyor lines,
casting under pressure. At "Shtamp" plant nickel-plating
automatic line was introduced. Some samovars are decorated
with art rolling. The plant produces samovars of different
types: coal of six versions, from 1956 electrical, volume
2-3 litres, for buffets, combined and painted.
Folk traditions exist, develop. Beautiful samovars made as
presents are produced at this plant. Tula samovars were often
awarded with medals at native and international exhibitions.